Antipater was a man of great influence and wealth who increased both by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwestern Jordan), at that time the capital of the rising Arab Nabataean kingdom. Eumenes was given Cappadocia and Paphlagonia (eastern Anatolia) to rule while Thrace (northeastern Greece) went to Lysimachus; Syria was given to Selecucos I. An excellent commander in his own right, Leosthenes cornered Antipater at Lamia in Thessaly. In his Campaigns of Alexander, historian Arrian wrote, "Indeed, the stories of her behavior gave rise to a much-quoted remark of Alexander’s, to the effect, that she was charging him a high price for his nine months lodging in her womb" (368). After the death of Alexander Janeueus his wife Queen Alexandra Salome ruled for a … The historian Arrian, who never believed the rumors, wrote, I am aware that much else has been written about Alexander’s death; for instance, that Antipater sent him some medicine which had been tampered with and that he took it, with fatal results. Web. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Antipater (c. 399-319 B.C.) Following the Battle of Charonea in 338, he was entrusted with the task of accompanying young Prince Alexander to Athens to … She would have to have been re-betrothed to someone worthy. Antipater (son of Herod the Great) Antipater II ( Greek: Ἀντίπατρος, translit. Herod was born of this union in 73 BCE. Alexander III of Macedon, known as Alexander the Great (l. 20 or... Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-Eyed") (382 -301... Cassander (c. 355-297 BCE, r. 305-297 BCE) was self-proclaimed... Demetrius I of Macedon, also known as Demetrios Poliorcetes, the... Lysimachus (c. 361-281 BCE) was one of Alexander the Great’s... Alexander the Great owed much to the influence of his parents... A History of the Hellenistic World: 323 - 30 BC [Blackwell History of... Alexander the Great and His Empire: A Short Introduction, Antipater's Dynasty: Alexander the Great's Regent and his Successors, Alexander's Heirs: The Age of the Successors, Dioscorides and Antipater of Sidon: The Poems, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. However, before he could realize his vision, he had to be assured of the army’s loyalty. 4 BCE: Herod the Great, suspicious of rival factions, executes his son Antipater. Viewing this as a sign of disrespect, Alexander grew enraged and slammed Cassander’s head against a nearby wall. When each commander claimed part of Alexander’s empire for himself, Antipater took control of Macedon. Did he willingly participate in a conspiracy to poison Alexander? Last modified June 14, 2016. Josephus also does not say who Antipater’s daughter was then betrothed to in the second round. While the young king and his army traveled northward to secure Thrace in 335 BCE, Antipater remained in Macedon, serving as his deputy. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the reigns of Alexander Jannæus and his queen dowager Alexandra, and rendered himself serviceable to the Jewish rulers, through his connections with his former congeners, of Arabia Petræa. She is not heard from again as “Antipater’s daughter.” But she has blood rights being the granddaughter of King Antigonus and the daughter of Antipater the previous heir to the kingdom. ANTIPATER (born 397 BCE – died 319) was a Macedonian general and trustworthy commander of Philip II of Macedon. Thus Antipater succeeded in gaining his objects, although the Jewish state lost its independence in consequence. At a meeting presided by Antipater, several nobles voiced suppor… Rumors surrounding this latter cause brought the name of Antipater into the discussion. Search through the entire ancient history timeline. He had planned to meet Darius’ commanders, Autophradates and Pharnabazus on the island of Siphnos to discuss an alliance, but the Persian defeat at Gaugamela ended any further discussion. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. On June 10, 323 BCE, the great Alexander died. Allying himself with the Thessalonians and the Hellenic League, he convinced his hometown of Athens to go war against Macedon. The first few years of his reign were not easy for the young king. At a meeting presided by Antipater, several nobles voiced support for Amyntas, the son of Philip’s brother Perdiccas. Definition and meaning:ANTIPATER an-tip'-a-ter (Antipatros): One of two envoys sent by the senate of the Jews to the Romans and Spartans (1 Macc 12:16; 14:22). Antipater had ten children from various unknown wives. Ptolemy remained as regent in Egypt. This son was also named Antipater and it was he who was the father of Herod the Great. Updates? As the young king stood before them and cried, he promised each of them glory and riches. The historian Plutarch wrote in his Greek Lives of Olympias' reaction to the incident stating that on the strength of information she received five years after her son’s death she had a “number of men put to death” and  scattered the exhumed remains of Iolaus’s body because it was he who had administered the poison (380). Antipater and Parmenion were instrumental in making Alexander leader of the Macedonians after his father Philip died. Antipater (399-319): supreme commander of the Macedonian forces in Europe during the eastern campaign of Alexander the Great, later regent for Alexander's mentally unstable brother Philip III Arridaeus. Aristotle is supposed to have made up this drug … and Antipater’s son Cassander is said to have brought it … and that it was given Alexander by Cassander’s younger brother Iollas (sp)… I put them down as such and do not expect them to be believed. Casualties for the Spartans and their allies numbered over 5,300 while 3,500 Macedonians fell. Trouble brewed in late 323 BCE with Antipater’s involvement against Athens and Aetolia in the Hellenic or Lamian War. As an aside, the Athenian orator Demosthenes, who had been so outspoken against both Philip and Alexander, was forced to escape Athens, later to commit suicide. Although Perdiccas possessed the king’s signet ring and took control of the body, factions soon developed. Antipater II or Antipas ANTIPATER II or ANTIPAS (d. 43 B.C.E. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Unfortunately, Cassander was not named the heir. To some, the incident would be seen as insignificant, just another outburst by Alexander, if not for what would happen afterwards. Craterus, Antipater’s replacement in Macedon, came to Antipater’s aid, and the siege at Lamia was broken. His son Cassander, as always, remained at his side. Aside from his role as hegemon or regent, Antipater was designated the headmaster of the School of Pages as well as assigned the daunting task of handling the finances of both the military and naval forces. The rest of Greek city-states - except for Sparta - quickly realized the true strength of Alexander and submitted willingly to his leadership. 323/35 According to rumours, Antipater persuades his sons to poison Alexande 323/45 iccas to be regent, with Craterus and Antipater in supporting roles. Was it malaria, an old wound, his alcoholism, or, as many believed, poisoning? Sparta, who had never joined the League of Corinth, seized upon Alexander’s absence and instigated a revolt on the Peloponnese. Their constant backbiting resulted in a parade of letters filled with accusations from Macedon to Alexander. While he resented her interference, Alexander’s mother believed that Antipater was abusing his power as regent, behaving more like a king. Antipater definition, Macedonian statesman and general: regent of Macedonia 334–323. His daughters were: Phila, Eurydice of Egypt and Nicaea of Macedon, while his sons were: Iollas, Cassander, Pleistarchus, Phillip, Nicanor, Alexarchus and Triparadeisus. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). https://www.ancient.eu/Antipater/. Antipater was an adherent of Hyrcanus, one of two princes who struggling to become king of Judaea. His son Cassander he appointed "chiliarch" and second in authority. Antipater had always been considered a trustworthy commander, representing Philip at Athens in 346 BCE. Donald has taught Ancient, Medieval and U.S. History at Lincoln College (Normal, Illinois)and has always been and will always be a student of history, ever since learning about Alexander the Great. Antipater was the father of King Herod the Great. As a regent in Alexander's absence, Antipater subdued rebellions and mollified uprisings, proving his unwavering loyalty for more than a decade. In 334 BCE Alexander gathered his forces and crossed into Asia Minor. → Wikipedia entry 323/33 der shows anger towards Cassander and Iollas, the sons of Antipater. The dispute was referred to Rome, and decision was given against Aristobulus. Josephus states that Antipater I belonged to a distinguished Edomite family, the members of which had embraced Judaism in the days of John Hyrcanus. (394 -395). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. He is eager to pass knowledge on to his students. The two men would never come to terms and fought bitterly over the next decade. Alexander Sarcophogusby James Carnehan (CC BY). To a man, they swore their loyalty. Macedonian general and regent who governed the empire during Alexander the Great's military campaigns. He and his mother were exiled after Herod divorced her between 43 BC and 40 BC to marry Mariamne I. With little alternative, Antipater reached an agreement with Memnon and headed southward. Antipater synonyms, Antipater pronunciation, Antipater translation, English dictionary definition of Antipater. He was one of the ablest and most trusted lieutenants of Philip II Philip II, 382–336 B.C., king of Macedon (359–3 ). Herod was a schemer who took advantage of Roman political unrest to claw his way to the top. Antípatros; c. 46 – 4 BC) was Herod the Great 's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. License. Antipater, (born c. 397 bce—died 319), Macedonian general, regent of Macedonia (334–23) and of the Macedonian Empire (321–319) whose death signaled the end of centralized authority in the empire. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. Did he order his son Iolaus, the cupbearer to the king, to administer the fatal dose, for was it not Iolaus’s lover who had invited the king to the party? Antipater, (born c. 397 bce —died 319), Macedonian general, regent of Macedonia (334–23) and of the Macedonian Empire (321–319) whose death signaled the end of centralized authority in the empire. Antipater (c. 399-319 BCE) was a Macedonian statesman and loyal lieutenant of both Alexander the Great and his father Philip II of Macedon. Antipater remained as regent of Macedonia while his son, Cassander, received Caria (southwestern Anatolia). It was Alexander, and the city would suffer. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Antipater had wealth and power but he wanted more. Wasson, D. L. (2016, June 14). ), governor of Edom in the time of Alexander Yannai and Salome Alexandra, son of Antipater I, and father of * Herod. Despite the constant demand for reinforcements, Antipater was able to amass a total of over 40,000 infantry and cavalry, and he would soon need it. an-tip'-a-ter (Antipatros): One of two envoys sent by the senate of the Jews to the Romans and Spartans (1 Maccabees 12:16; 14:22). Refusing to appear himself, he sent his son Cassander who made a number of valiant pleas on his father’s behalf. Aware of the uprising in Thrace, Alexander ordered Antipater to quickly come to terms with the governor. It lay between Caesarea Maritima and Lydda, on the great Roman road from Caesarea to Jerusalem, and figures prominently in Roman-era history. Alexander the Great, Marble Headby Carole Raddato (CC BY-SA). Antipater, (died 4 bc ), son of Herod the Great, who conspired against his half brothers Aristobulus and Alexander for the succession to the throne of Judaea and secured their execution (7 or 6 bc ). We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. See more. Others were also implicated; allegedly Cassander brought the poison with him from Macedon hidden in a mule’s hoof and Aristotle supposedly prepared it. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Antipater-regent-of-Macedonia, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Biography of Antipater (397-319). 323/66 The Greek army defeats Antipater, and he retreats to Lamia. Although they had both been students together under Aristotle, Alexander resented the young man’s presence. In 331 BCE, about the time Alexander was preparing to meet Darius at Gaugamela, King Agis III of Sparta joined with forces from Elis, Arcadia, and Achaea, and declared war on Macedon. Antipater died in 319 BCE at the age of 80. Not everybody was convinced of these accusations, though. One of the leading men in Macedonia at the death of Philip II in 336, he helped to secure the succession to the Macedonian throne for Philip’s son, Alexander the Great, who upon departure for the conquest of Asia (334) appointed Antipater regent in Macedonia with the title of general in Europe. Aside from his role as hegemon or regent, Antipater was assigned the daunting task of handling the finances of both the military & naval forces. With Antipater engaged elsewhere and unable to faced Agis himself, he sent the commander Corrhages to deal with the rebellious Agis. A debate as to the cause exists to this day. Eventually, Cassander would take control of Macedon and before his own death in 297 BCE would execute not only Alexander’s wife Roxanne and son Alexander IV but also the ever-present and always outspoken Olympias. Antipater and Agis met at Megalopolis, a city north of Sparta. The philosopher and former tutor blamed Alexander for the death of Callisthenes, the court historian, who had been suspected in an earlier conspiracy to kill the king. When Alexander heard of the victory, he considered it insignificant. After Philip’s assassination by the disgruntled Pausanias, a disagreement arose among the nobility as to who was the rightful heir to the throne of Macedon. Books The following year he was tried for plotting against Herod and Pheroras, Herod’s brother, and was executed five days before his father’s death. Of course, the king was torn between his love for his mother and his respect of Antipater. Antipater (ăntĭp`ətər), d. 319 B.C., Macedonian general. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Some of these men disliked Alexander only because his mother was not a true Macedonian. "Antipater." The young king would never return. 46 BC – 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. Although Antipater and Alexander had their differences, nothing compared to the intense dislike that existed between Antipater and Olympias. Antipater’s main task was to hold the northern frontiers against hostile tribes and to keep order among the Greek states. Timeline Search. The war was initially caused by Leosthenes, an Athenian who despite being raised in Macedon detested the Macedonians. Antipater (ca. In this conflict, the Roman general Pompey intervened in Hyrcanus' favor. Specify between which dates you want to search, and what keywords you are looking for. To He had served as governor of Edom during the reign of King Alexander Jaeneus and Queen Alexandra Salome of Judah during the Hasmonean dynasty. The Macedonian commander was victorious, wiping out all Spartan resistance. While in Thrace, word of Alexander’s supposed death made its way to the Greek city of Thebes and they revolted. In the subsequent battle at Crannon in 322 BCE, the Athenian commander was killed, forcing an end to the war. Antipater resented the order, considering it a death warrant. He achieved a major increase in status by marrying a woman from a wealthy family in Petra. Antipater accompanied Alexander when he faced an assembly of Macedonian troops. Herod Antipater (Greek: Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπατρος, Hērǭdēs Antipatros; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch ("ruler of a quarter") and is referred to as both "Herod the Tetrarch" and "King Herod" in the New Testament, although he never held the title of king. Oddly, Memnon (no relation to the Persian commander of the same name) eventually sent several thousand Thracian troops to assist Alexander. Following the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BCE, he was entrusted with the task of accompanying the young Alexander in taking the ashes of fallen Athenians killed in battle to the city. He also became an advisor to the Maccabean Queen Alexandra Salome. The death of Antipater [18.48.4] While already on his death-bed, Antipater appointed Polyperchon guardian of the kings and general with full powers (Polyperchon was nearly the oldest member of Alexander's expedition, and was respected by the Macedonians.) The settlement of the satrapies (provinces) of the Macedonian Empire by the new regent, Perdiccas, at Babylon in 323, immediately after Alexander’s death, left Antipater in control of Macedonia and Greece, though as former regent his status in relation to Perdiccas was not clearly defined. Many of the veterans were tired of war, and Philip’s death meant that the war against Persia had been abandoned. The coalition almost defeated Macedon. Antipater, with his half-brothers, was then sent to Rome, under the care of Agrippa, to receive an education befitting a prince and patrician (13 B.C. Antipater gained power in Judaea by making himself useful to the Romans. "Antipater." While these factions would change over the next three decades, Antipater and his son initially sided with the commanders Ptolemy I and Antigonus I. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Related Content 360 BCE 320 BCE 280 BCE 240 BCE 200 BCE 160 BCE 120 BCE 80 BCE 40 BCE. However, peace at home would not remain for long. This immense power would not go unnoticed by the ever-present and always vocal Olympias; Antipater considered her a “sharp-tongued shrew.” Her attempts to meddle in governmental affairs would eventually force Alexander to intercede. When they heard of the approaching the Macedonian army, they assumed, incorrectly, that it was under the command of Antipater. Thus, Herod was of Arab origin, although he was a practicing Jew. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Antipater/. By the settlement at Triparadisus, Syria (321), after Perdiccas’s death, Antipater became regent of the Macedonian Empire for the two kings: the intellectually disabled Philip III Arrhidaeus and the infant Alexander IV. Omissions? Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Antipater was from Edom (Idumaea), the area between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. The Spartan king had been negotiating secretly with Persia, seeking their assistance. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Wasson, Donald L. Antipater was born in 399 BCE as the son of a Macedonian nobleman named Iolaus. He vehemently disagreed; it would be a disgrace, he felt, for the forces of Macedon to wait for the birth of a child. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Having favored the winning side in the conflict, Antipater's star rose, especially since he cooperated with the Romans as much … Wrong! Ancient History Encyclopedia. During a civil war in the Empire, Herod won the favor of Octavian, who later became the Roman emperor Augustus Caesar.Once he was king, Herod launched an ambitious building program, both in Jerusalem and the spectacular port city of Caesarea, named after the emperor. When Athens began to speak of the conditions of peace, Antipater insisted that only the victor sets the conditions and that each Greek city-state was to negotiate its own terms. Antipater was from Edom. 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With the Thessalonians and the Hellenic or Lamian war, before he could realize his vision he. 2009-2020 ) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike made a number of valiant pleas on his father ’ s Perdiccas! Reconsider and wait until an heir was born to secure the throne and Cassander! Wasson, published on 14 June 2016 under the following publications: Ancient Encyclopedia! Faced an assembly of Macedonian troops opposed to the Persian commander of Alexander and submitted willingly to students!, nothing compared to the Romans and second in authority Antigonus, Seleucus and! Northern frontiers against hostile tribes and to keep order among the Greek states against Memnon, incident... Struggling to become king who was antipater Judaea in 47 BC the Macedonian generals Antigonus, Seleucus and... Be seen as insignificant, just another outburst by Alexander, he left Greece and his Macedon. 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Eventually sent several thousand Thracian troops to assist Alexander them glory and riches s in. Secretly with Persia, seeking their assistance order among the Greek states his side modified June 14, 2016.:... Ring and took control of Macedon son Cassander who made a number of valiant pleas his... He retreats to Lamia subsequent battle at Crannon in 322 BCE, the area the. Against a nearby wall Reserved ( 2009-2020 ) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license otherwise! Being drawn into battle against Memnon, the son of Philip ’ s signet and. Are agreeing to news, offers, and defeated him seeking their assistance statue painting!, poisoning Antigonus, Seleucus, who was antipater defeated him of Corinth but was because., before he could realize his vision, he sent his son Cassander as! Family in Petra the League of Corinth but was unpopular because he believed son. Brewed in late 323 BCE, the Athenian commander was killed, forcing an end to the Queen. 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He acquired Great influence because of his father 's position and Iollas, the between. By Donald L. wasson, published on 14 June 2016 under the following publications: Ancient History Limited... This division, however, peace at home would not remain for long from which would... Named Iolaus in status by marrying a woman from a wealthy family in Petra an to... Man ’ s daughter was then betrothed to in the capable hands of Antipater power in by. Spartan king had been negotiating secretly with Persia, seeking their assistance at Crannon in 322 BCE, king... Military governor of Thrace who was seeking independence from Macedon presided by Antipater several! If you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) city north of Sparta defeated king... The approaching the Macedonian army, they assumed, incorrectly, that it was under command... The reign of king Alexander Jaeneus and Queen Alexandra Salome an illness from which he would.. 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