In his prologue to the Judith he mentions that "among the Hebrews, the authority [of Judith] came into contention", but that it was "counted in the number of Sacred Scriptures" by the First Council of Nicaea. [37] The KJV followed the Geneva Bible of 1560 almost exactly (variations are marked below). ORIGINAL LANGUAGES OF THE APOCRYPHAVI. The Biblical Antiquities of Philo translated by M. R. James [1917] An alternative pseudepigraphal narrative of the Hebrew Bible from Genesis through 1 Samuel, written in the first century C.E. (4) Patristic.In patristic writings of an early period the adjective apokruphos came to be applied to Jewish and Christian writings containing secret knowledge about the future, etc., intelligible only to the small number of disciples who read them and for whom they were believed to be specially provided. Nicephorus, patriarch of Constantinople (806-15 A.D.) in his chronography (belonging essentially to 500 A.D. according to Zahn) divides sacred books thus:(1) the canonical books of the Old Testament and New Testament;(2) the Antilegomena of both Testaments;(3) the Apocrypha of both Testaments.The details of the Apocrypha of the New Testament are thus enumerated:(1) Enoch;(2) The 12 Patriarchs;(3) The Prayer of Joseph;(4) The Testament of Moses;(5) The Assumption of Moses;(6) Abram;(7) Eldad and Modad;(8) Elijah the Prophet;(9) Zephaniah the Prophet;(10) Zechariah, father of John;(11) The Pseudepigrapha of Baruch, Habakkuk, Ezekiel and Daniel.The books of the New Testament Apocrypha are thus given:(1) The Itinerary of Paul;(2) The Itinerary of Peter;(3) The Itinerary of John;(4) The Itinerary of Thomas;(5) The Gospel according to Thomas;(6) The Teaching of the Apostles (the Didache);(7) and (8) The Two Epistles of Clement;(9) Epistles of Ignatius, Polycarp and Hermas.The above lists are repeated in the so-called Synopsis of Athanasius. The Vinaya Pitaka or "Basket of Discipline" contains the rules for entrance and the regulations to be observed after entrance. (2) Change to "Religious" Books (Origen, etc. 2 Esdras. The former of these I have also found in Hebrew, titled not Ecclesiasticus as among the Latins, but Parables, to which were joined Ecclesiastes and Song of Songs, as though it made of equal worth the likeness not only of the number of the books of Solomon, but also the kind of subjects. (4) In later patristic Greek (Irenaeus, etc.) Since the Protestant canon consists of but 57 books it will be seen that in this list books outside our canon are included. .../s/stranger.htm - 57k, Sojourner (81 Occurrences)... Noah Webster's Dictionary (n.) One who sojourns. But with the destruction of the sanctuary and the disbanding of its officials it was needful to find some fresh binding and directing agency and this was found in the collection of sacred writings known by us as the Old Testament. Int. [45][46] Since that time most modern editions of the Bible and reprintings of the King James Bible omit the Apocrypha section. Those who argue in support of the Apocrypha say these conflicts reveal additional knowledge. "[8] Moreover, the Revised Common Lectionary, in use by most mainline Protestants including Methodists and Moravians, lists readings from the Apocrypha in the liturgical calendar, although alternate Old Testament scripture lessons are provided. The Samaritans, for example, accept only the Samaritan Pentateuch, the five books of Moses, as canonical and inspired: Genesis through Deuteronomy and Joshua (more precisely called the Hexateuch).All other writings are rejected by them as the uninspired works of men. During the Nicene period, and even earlier, sacred books were divided by Christian teachers into three classes:(1) books that could be read in church;(2) books that could be read privately, but not in public;(3) books that were not to be read at all. But, these books had already been accepted into the canon by the Jews - where the Apocrypha had not. [50], Some editions add additional books, such as Psalm 151 or the Odes (including the Prayer of Manasseh). These texts are not traditionally segregated into a separate section, nor are they usually called apocrypha. As an authority for this division, he cited St. Jerome, who in the early 5th century distinguished the Hebrew and Greek Old Testaments,[32] stating that books not found in the Hebrew were not received as canonical. In the Septuagint (or rather Theodotion's version) of Daniel 11:43 it stands for "hidden" as applied to gold and silver stores. :A brief statement as to the doctrine in early Greek philosophy will be found helpful at this point. The eastern churches down to the present day reject the meaning of "apocrypha" current among Protestants (see definition above), and their Bible includes the Old Testament Apocrypha, making no distinction between it and the rest of the Bible.3. IVP Academic, 2010, Location 1478–86 (Kindle Edition). SummaryIV. In English, Welsh and other Protestant versions of the Scriptures the whole of the additions appear in the Apocrypha. The Greek apocrypha cannot therefore be a rendering of the Hebrew expression. After the Lutheran and Catholic canons were defined by Luther (c. 1534) and Trent[28] (8 April 1546) respectively, early Protestant editions of the Bible (notably the Luther Bible in German and 1611 King James Version in English) did not omit these books, but placed them in a separate Apocrypha section apart from the Old and New Testaments to indicate their status. Usage as to Apocrypha.It must be borne in mind that the word apocrypha is really a Greek adjective in the neuter plural, denoting strictly "things hidden." Usage and Etymology: The Hebrew word occurs some 560 times in the Old Testament with the meaning "man," "mankind." Protestantism was in its very essence the religion of a book, and Protestants would be sure to see to it that the sacred volume on which they based their religion, including the reforms they introduced, contained no book but those which in their opinion had the strongest claims to be regarded as authoritative.In the eastern and western churches under the influence of the Greek (Septuagint) and Latin (Vulgate) versions the books of the Apocrypha formed an integral part of the canon and were scattered throughout the Old Testament, they being placed generally near books with which they have affinity. I. [29] Its Old Testament includes the books that Jerome considered apocryphal and those Clement VIII later moved to the appendix. The Mishna (the text of the Gemara, both making up what we call the Talmud) or oral law with its additions came to be divided analogously into(1) The Mishna proper;(2) the external (chitsonah) Mishna: in Aramaic called Baraiytha'.6. These are mostly of a legendary character. )(2) Change to "Religious" Books (Origen, etc. occurs in the above phrase means "to store away," "to remove from view"-of things in themselves sacred or precious. Which books are considered as part of the Bible or divvine change from time to time. In general it may be said that the western church did not adopt the triple division of sacred books prevalent in the eastern church. In critical works of the present day it is customary to speak of the collection of writings now in view as "the Old Testament Apocrypha," because many of the books at least were written in Hebrew, the language of the Old Testament, and because all of them are much more closely allied to the Old Testament than to the New Testament. 2 Esdras is added as an appendix in the Slavonic Bibles and 4 Maccabees as an appendix in Greek editions.[50]. Standard Bible Encyclopedia. ).The rise of this conception in the eastern church is easily understood. It will be seen from what has been said that notwithstanding the favorable attitude toward it of the eastern and western churches, from the earliest times, our Apocrypha was regarded with more or less suspicion, and the suspicion would be strengthened by the general antagonism toward it. ad'-am, ('adham; Septuagint Adam). 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